Blood Pressure Stability and Plasma Aldosterone Reduction: The Effects of a Sodium and Bicarbonate-Rich Water

A Randomized Controlled Intervention Study

authored by
Katharina Mansouri, Theresa Greupner, Andreas Hahn

Objective: Hypertension is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and dietary sodium intake has been linked to its development. However, mineral water high in bicarbonate and sodium does not appear to have adverse effects on blood pressure. This study examines the effects of consuming a mineral water high in bicarbonate and sodium (HBS) compared to a low bicarbonate and sodium (LBS) mineral water on blood pressure and related factors. Methods: A randomized controlled intervention was conducted with 94 healthy participants, consuming 1,500–2,000 mL daily of either mineral water high in bicarbonate and sodium (HBS water, n = 49) or low in bicarbonate and sodium (LBS water, n = 45). Blood pressure, anthropometrics, and urinary calcium and sodium excretion were assessed at baseline and after 28 days. 3-day food protocols were assessed to evaluate possible dietary changes. Results: Blood pressure changes did not differ between the groups. Both normotensive and hypertensive subjects showed similar changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to the different test waters. Serum aldosterone decreased significantly in both groups, with a greater reduction in the HBS group. Urinary calcium excretion significantly decreased (p = 0.002) and sodium excretion increased in the HBS group. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated no association between urinary sodium excretion and systolic blood pressure increase in the HBS group (B = 0.046, p = 0.170). Changes in urinary sodium excretion did not correlate with changes in serum aldosterone in the same group (r=-0.146, p = 0.350). Conclusions: The study revealed no significant differences in blood pressure changes between individuals consuming HBS water and LBS water. Notably, the additional sodium intake from the test water was effectively excreted. Trial registration: This trial was registered in the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00025341,

Nutrition Physiology and Human Nutrition Section
Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition
No. of pages
Publication date
Publication status
Peer reviewed
ASJC Scopus subject areas
Internal Medicine, Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Sustainable Development Goals
SDG 3 - Good Health and Well-being
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