Influence of Nutrition and Physical Activity on Local and Systemic Inflammatory Signs in Experimentally Induced Gingivitis

authored by
Ingmar Staufenbiel, Knut Adam, Andreas Hahn, Felix Kerlikowsky, Marco Flohr, Nadine Schlueter, Kirstin Vach

Although numerous studies have been published investigating the relationship between various dietary components and inflammatory periodontal disease, it has not yet been possible to clearly distinguish between periodontally healthy and unhealthy diets. This clinical study aimed to assess the association of specific food ingredients and physical activity on local and systemic inflammatory signs in experimentally induced gingivitis. Thirty-nine non-smoking periodontally healthy volunteers (mean age 23.2 ± 3.8 years) refrained from oral hygiene in the right maxilla for 21 days to induce an experimental gingivitis. Clinical examination (baseline and day 21) included plaque index, bleeding on probing (BOP), gingival crevicular fluid volume and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels (blood sample). Accompanying the intervention, volunteers documented with validated questionnaires their physical activity converted into metabolic equivalent (MET) and their nutrition converted into the dietary inflammatory index (DII). Significantly lower BOP (p = 0.039) was found for subjects with a more anti-inflammatory DII than for those with a more pro-inflammatory DII; higher MET values were correlated with lower BOP at day 21 (correlation coefficient −0.36). The results show an influence of nutrition and physical activity on periodontal inflammation signs. The DII may be a suitable parameter to verify the relationship between nutrition and inflammatory periodontal diseases.

Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition
Nutrition Physiology and Human Nutrition Section
External Organisation(s)
Hannover Medical School (MHH)
Universitätsklinikum Freiburg
Publication date
Publication status
Peer reviewed
ASJC Scopus subject areas
Food Science, Nutrition and Dietetics
Electronic version(s) (Access: Open)